SCRs and IGBTs are two commonly used power electronic devices, and their roles and applications in circuits are different. The following will compare and analyze the device characteristics, circuit applications, advantages and disadvantages, etc.
(JT3000 series silicon-controlled power regulator)
Characteristics and applications of SCR
A thyristor is a high-power semiconductor device with a four-layer structure with three PN junctions, usually evolved from a silicon rectifier device (SCR). The thyristor has three terminals: cathode, anode, and gate. Its characteristic is that when the positive anode voltage is applied, the entrance has a trigger current, and the thyristor turns on. At this time, there is low impedance between its anode and cathode, and a large forward current can flow. When the anode voltage is removed, the thyristor still conducts and will not turn off until a large reverse current flows. Therefore, the thyristor has the dual functions of controlled rectification and switching.
In circuits, thyristors are usually used in rectifier circuits, chopper circuits, inverter circuits, etc. Its function is to convert alternating current into direct or direct current into alternating current. In addition, thyristors are also widely used in various electronic equipment, such as televisions, computers, washing machines, etc., as power switches, signal amplifiers, regulators, etc.
Characteristics and applications of IGBT
IGBT is an insulated gate bipolar transistor, a composite fully controlled voltage-driven power semiconductor device composed of BJT (bipolar triode) and MOS (insulated gate field effect transistor). It has the advantages of high input impedance, low conduction voltage drop, sizeable current density, high-speed switching, etc., and has been widely used in power electronics.
In circuits, IGBTs are usually used in inverters, DC/DC converters, motor controllers, etc. They convert DC power into AC power or AC power into DC power. In addition, IGBT is also widely used in various power electronic equipment, such as electric vehicles, wind power generation, electric traction, etc.
(3000 amp high power thyristor power regulator)
The difference between thyristor and IGBT
Different structures and principles: A silicon-controlled thyristor is an SCR device composed of three PN junctions and has the dual functions of controllable rectification and switching. IGBT is a composite, fully controlled voltage-driven power semiconductor device with BJT and MOS. It has advantages such as high input impedance, reduced conduction voltage, high current density, and fast switching speed.
- Different application fields: SCRs are widely used in circuits, including rectifier circuits, chopper circuits, inverter circuits, etc., while IGBTs are mainly used in inverters, DC/DC converters, motor controllers, etc.
- Different advantages and disadvantages: The edge of the thyristor has the dual functions of controlled rectification and switching, but the burden is that the trigger current is more significant and requires higher driving power. The advantages of IGBT are high input impedance, low conduction voltage drop, sizeable current density, high-speed switching, etc. However, the disadvantage is that there is a tail current during turn-off, which may affect the turn-off speed and loss of the device.
- Different voltage and current capabilities: SCRs have lower voltage capabilities, generally below a few hundred volts, while IGBTs have higher voltage capabilities, reaching several thousand volts. In addition, the current capacity of thyristors is also low, generally below a few hundred amps. In contrast, the current capability of IGBTs is higher, reaching hundreds or even thousands of amps.
In short, SCRs and IGBTs are two different power electronic devices. They differ in structure and principle, application fields, advantages and disadvantages, and voltage and current capabilities. In actual applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate device type according to specific application scenarios and requirements.
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